Aug 072011
 

Question by joedee: How does Mary Shelley’s Franknestein stem from the science and physics during that time period?

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Answer by Ralph
The novel was conceived and written during an early phase of the Industrial Revolution, at a time of dramatic advances in science and technology. That the creation rebels against its creator can be seen as a warning that the application of science can lead to unintended consequences.

Also, Scientists were experimenting with electricity as a muscle stimulant in both animals and human cadavers around this time. This practice came to be know as galvanism which refers to electricity produced by chemical reactions. The term gavlanism was coined by Alexandre Volta after Luigi Galvani, an Italian physicist of the 18th Century who helped lay some of the foundations of bioelectricity (the production of electricity by living organisms via there constituite parts). Galvani advocated the idea of “animal electricity” under the belief ( stemming from his experiments involving the application of electricity to a frog’s legs ) that organisms produced a fluid that generates an electric charge, which might explain how the idea found it’s way into Frankenstein

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Nov 262010
 

Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene


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Home Page > Spirituality > Religion > Mary Magdalene

Mary Magdalene

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Mary Magdalene

By: Dr Simon Harding

About the Author

(ArticlesBase SC #1971988)

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/Mary Magdalene





Mary Magdalene

She was called “Magdalene” because she was from a town in Galilee called “Magdala” (“tower”), mentioned only in Matt. 15:39. In the parallel passage in Mark 8:10 this place is called Dalmanutha. It was on the west shore of the Lake of Tiberias, and is now probably the small obscure village called el-Mejdel, about 3 miles northwest of Tiberias. In the Talmud this city is called “the city of color,” and a particular district of it was called “the tower of dyers.” The indigo plant was much cultivated here.

Mary Magdalene is a very important person in the New Testament, and somehow controversial, a little like St. Peter. – From the Peter who denied the Lord, Jesus brought out a Saint. – From a prostitute, Jesus brought out St. Mary Magdalene, a faithful disciple, present at Calvary to the burial and just after the Resurrection, “the Apostle to the Apostles” says John Paul II, because Jesus ordered her after the Resurrection, Go to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’… and the Magdalene did just that. Mary Magdalene went to the disciples with the news: “I have seen the Lord!” And she told them that he had said these things to her. ((Jn.20:17-18).

First meeting with Jesus: Magdala is mentioned only in Matt. 15:39, at the end of the miracle of Jesus feeding the 4,000 (Mat.15:29-39), and probably Mary Magdalene met Jesus for the first time during this miracle in the vicinity of Magdala.

First mention of Mary Magdalene: A prostitute ?

The first time she is mentioned in the Bible is in Luke 8:3: After this, Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God. The Twelve were with him, 2and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out; 3Joanna the wife of Cuza, the manager of Herod’s household; Susanna; and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their own means. (Lk.8:1-3).

Mary Magdalene is mentioned as some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out; (Lk.8:1-3). So, according to Dr Domonguez the Magdalene is first mentioned in the Bible as a Prostitute, that’s the meaning of the seven demons Jesus cast out from her. But by now she is already a good disciple, even helping with her money, These women were helping to support them out of their own means. (Lk.8:3).

Faces of Mary Magdalene:

Sixth Century: In 591, Pope Gregory the Great, emphasized the fact that Mary had worked as a prostitute: “She had coveted with earthly eyes, but now through penitence these are consumed with tears … She turned the mass of her crimes to virtues.” The Pope was criticized, but Dr Dominguez feels he was right. He presented the Magdalene as “model for penance”.

13th Century: In 1275, Jacobus de Voragine, a Dominican monk, authored “The Golden Legend,” which claimed Mary Magdalene had settled in France after the Resurrection. There, she preached the Gospel before retiring to a cave “in which place she had no comfort of running water, nor solace of trees, nor of herbs.” The tale was among the most widely read of the Middle Ages.

20th Century: In 1971, Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical “Jesus Christ Superstar” introduced the world to a thoroughly modern Mary, powerful, pretty—and still a prostitute. In her signature song, “I Don’t Know How to Love Him,” she marveled at Jesus’ effect on her: “He’s just a man. And I’ve had so many men before, in very many ways, He’s just one more.”

21st Century: In 2003 “The Da Vinci Code” claimed that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were married and together conceived a child. Dr Dominguez believes “The Da Vinci Code is the worst book and movie ever done about the Magdalene, it is a false heretical fantasy and even more, it is ridiculous”.

The Magdalene at Calvary and at the tomb:

55Many women were there, watching from a distance. They had followed Jesus from Galilee to care for his needs. 56Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s sons. (Mat.27:55, Mk. 115:41, Lk.23:55) . 57As evening approached, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who had himself become a disciple of Jesus. 58Going to Pilate, he asked for Jesus’ body, and Pilate ordered that it be given to him. 59Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut out of the rock. He rolled a big stone in front of the entrance to the tomb and went away. 61Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting there opposite the tomb. (Mt. 27:57-61).

The Magdalene after the Resurrection:

The four gospels describe the Resurrection of Jesus on the first Eastern Sunday and the four gospels mention Mary Magdalene by name, all the gospels in their last chapter except John, which is the most extensive and dedicates to it the last two chapters, 20 and 21. Magdalene was the first one to see the tomb open, two angels appeared to her, and they asked her: 13They asked her, “Woman, why are you crying?” (Jn.20) Now it is Jesus Himself who appeared to the Magdalene: “They have taken my Lord away,” she said, “and I don’t know where they have put him.” 14At this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, but she did not realize that it was Jesus. 15″Woman,” he said, “why are you crying? Who is it you are looking for?” Thinking he was the gardener, she said, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have put him, and I will get him.” 16Jesus said to her, “Mary.” She turned toward him and cried out in Aramaic, “Rabboni!” (which means Teacher). 17Jesus said, “Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet returned to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’ ” 18Mary Magdalene went to the disciples with the news: “I have seen the Lord!” And she told them that he had said these things to her. (Jn.20). Here Jesus ordered Mary Magdalene to go to the Apostles and give them a massage, she is the Apostle to the Apostles, as remarked by John Paul II, Go instead to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’ ” And that’s exactly what Mary did: 18Mary Magdalene went to the disciples with the news: “I have seen the Lord!” And she told them that he had said these things to her. (Jn.20).

The Magdalene could not touch Jesus in Jn.20, 17Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God. (Jn. 20:17, KJV)..

Here is the description in the Four Gospels:

John 20 The Empty Tomb

1Early on the first day of the week, while it was still dark, Mary Magdalene went to the tomb and saw that the stone had been removed from the entrance. 2So she came running to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one Jesus loved, and said, “They have taken the Lord out of the tomb, and we don’t know where they have put him!” 3So Peter and the other disciple started for the tomb. 4Both were running, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first. 5He bent over and looked in at the strips of linen lying there but did not go in. 6Then Simon Peter, who was behind him, arrived and went into the tomb. He saw the strips of linen lying there, 7as well as the burial cloth that had been around Jesus’ head. The cloth was folded up by itself, separate from the linen. 8Finally the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went inside. He saw and believed. 9(They still did not understand from Scripture that Jesus had to rise from the dead.) (Jn.20:1-9) Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene 10Then the disciples went back to their homes, 11but Mary stood outside the tomb crying. As she wept, she bent over to look into the tomb 12and saw two angels in white, seated where Jesus’ body had been, one at the head and the other at the foot. 13They asked her, “Woman, why are you crying?” “They have taken my Lord away,” she said, “and I don’t know where they have put him.” 14At this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, but she did not realize that it was Jesus. 15″Woman,” he said, “why are you crying? Who is it you are looking for?” Thinking he was the gardener, she said, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have put him, and I will get him.” 16Jesus said to her, “Mary.” She turned toward him and cried out in Aramaic, “Rabboni!” (which means Teacher). 17Jesus said, “Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet returned to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’ ” 17Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God. (KJV). 18Mary Magdalene went to the disciples with the news: “I have seen the Lord!” And she told them that he had said these things to her.

Matthew 28 The Resurrection

1After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb. 2There was a violent earthquake, for an angel of the Lord came down from heaven and, going to the tomb, rolled back the stone and sat on it. 3His appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were white as snow. 4The guards were so afraid of him that they shook and became like dead men. 5The angel said to the women, “Do not be afraid, for I know that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified. 6He is not here; he has risen, just as he said. Come and see the place where he lay. 7Then go quickly and tell his disciples: ‘He has risen from the dead and is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him.’ Now I have told you.” 8So the women hurried away from the tomb, afraid yet filled with joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 9Suddenly Jesus met them. “Greetings,” he said. They came to him, clasped his feet and worshiped him. 10Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee; there they will see me.” The Guards’ Report 11While the women were on their way, some of the guards went into the city and reported to the chief priests everything that had happened. 12When the chief priests had met with the elders and devised a plan, they gave the soldiers a large sum of money, 13telling them, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came during the night and stole him away while we were asleep.’ 14If this report gets to the governor, we will satisfy him and keep you out of trouble.” 15So the soldiers took the money and did as they were instructed. And this story has been widely circulated among the Jews to this very day.

Mark 16 The Resurrection

1When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body. 2Very early on the first day of the week, just after sunrise, they were on their way to the tomb 3and they asked each other, “Who will roll the stone away from the entrance of the tomb?” 4But when they looked up, they saw that the stone, which was very large, had been rolled away. 5As they entered the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe sitting on the right side, and they were alarmed. 6″Don’t be alarmed,” he said. “You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him. 7But go, tell his disciples and Peter, ‘He is going ahead of you into Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.’ ” 8Trembling and bewildered, the women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.

Luke 24 The Resurrection

1On the first day of the week, very early in the morning, the women took the spices they had prepared and went to the tomb. 2They found the stone rolled away from the tomb, 3but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. 4While they were wondering about this, suddenly two men in clothes that gleamed like lightning stood beside them. 5In their fright the women bowed down with their faces to the ground, but the men said to them, “Why do you look for the living among the dead? 6He is not here; he has risen! Remember how he told you, while he was still with you in Galilee: 7′The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, be crucified and on the third day be raised again.’ ” 8Then they remembered his words. 9When they came back from the tomb, they told all these things to the Eleven and to all the others. 10It was Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the others with them who told this to the apostles. 11But they did not believe the women, because their words seemed to them like nonsense. 12Peter, however, got up and ran to the tomb. Bending over, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he went away, wondering to himself what had happened.

Apocrypha Gospels and the “Da Vinci Code”:

All of the above is from the Bible, the “Word of God”, but there over 30 books more, called Apocrypha or Gnostic, which are not in the Bible, and have they been declared heretical by the church centuries ago. In the Da Vinci Code there are even misquotations of the Apocrypha books. For example, the Da Vinci Code claims that The Gnostic Gospel of Mary is about Christ entrusting the Church to Mary Magdalene. It is not. It is about Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalene after the resurrection with a Gnostic revelation which she immediately bring to the disciples, and the disciples then arguing about whether or not Jesus would entrust such an important thing to a woman.Dr Harding recommends Karen King’s The Gospel of Mary of Magdala.

Rivalry between St. Mary Magdalene and S. Peter?:

Based mostly in the above Apocrypha and Gnostic heretic books some Gnostics have tried often to imagine a false rivalry between St. Peter and St. Mary Magdalene… and even more, imaginary discrimination against women in the church of Christ It is true that Mary Magdalene is never mentioned after the Gospels, neither in the Acts nor in the Epistles. However Mary Magdalene is a Saint for the church, St. Mary Magdalene, and Peter never had any personal problem with St. Mary Magdalene, according to the Bible, the Word of God.

Yet the Magdalene lives on in another tradition that can be found in an obscure second-century text. Dubbed “The Gospel of Mary,” it depicts Mary as a leader of Jesus’ followers in the days after his resurrection. Written by Christians some 90 years after Jesus’ death, Mary’s is a “Gnostic gospel”; the Gnostics, a significant force in the early years of Christianity, stressed salvation through study and self-knowledge rather than simply through faith. The text was lost for centuries until found in fragments by a collector in Cairo in 1896.

In its telling, Jesus rises and vanishes after instructing his disciples to “preach the good news about the Realm.” The exhortation makes them uneasy: Christ had died preaching that gospel. What was to save them from a similar fate? Mary, however, is serene. “Do not weep and be depressed nor let your hearts be irresolute,” she tells them. “For his grace will be with you and shelter you.” Jesus, she says, has appeared to her in a vision where he gave her special knowledge of the soul’s journey through mystical realms. She tells the men she will help them understand the true teachings of Christ: “What is hidden from you I shall reveal to you.”

Her words seem to sting the others. Peter, “a wrathful man,” takes particular offense. “Did he really speak with a woman in private, without our knowledge?” he asks. “Should we all turn and listen to her?” Mostly, he is jealous: “Did he prefer her to us?” It is a question that is shaking Christianity after two millenniums.  To many feminists and theological liberals, the Gospel of Mary suggests that the Magdalene, the first witness to the Resurrection, was the “apostle to the apostles,” a figure with equal (or even favored) status to the men around Jesus—a woman so threatening that the apostles suppressed her role, and those of other women, in a bid to build a patriarchal hierarchy in the early church.

To others, shaped by orthodoxy, Mary was an important player in the life and ministry of Jesus, but subordinate to the men who followed him. Now, thanks to Dan Brown’s “The Da Vinci Code,” read by some 60 million people and open in 3,735 movie theaters nationwide, Mary Magdalene has a new role: wife of Jesus and mother of his child, whom Mary, who purportedly escaped the Holy Land, raised after Jesus’ death. According to the “Code”—which opened to tepid mainstream reviews but strong box office—the baby grew up to marry into a royal line in France—and descendants of Jesus and Mary can be found in Europe to this day. In one particularly affecting but purely fanciful scene, one character argues that the figure at Jesus’ right hand in Leonardo’s “Last Supper” is not a male disciple but Mary Magdalene, and that if one recasts the painting by putting “Mary” on Jesus’ left, they complete each other, male and female, a human whole—a married couple, joined together forever. It is cinematically intriguing, but like virtually all of Brown’s novel and the movie, it is a fantasy, not fact, and, not for the first time, Mary Magdalene is a vehicle of fevered fiction.

Mary Magdalene – literature, legend, politics and theology

From the beginning, the story of Mary Magdalene and Jesus has been the stuff of literature and legend, politics and theology, controversy and conflict. From age to age her changing image in the minds of believers and historians and artists has reflected the temper of the times—so much so that it is difficult to recover the historical Mary Magdalene from centuries of myth. Yet her history sheds light on essential questions, from the role of women in first-century Judaism to the nature of Jesus’ ministry to the formation of early Christianity. Understanding her relationship with Jesus and with the religion that came to bear his name offers a window on the fluid nature of the faith, and of the tensions about sex and power that shape it still, in the third millennium since that morning at the empty tomb. Mary was always an inconvenient woman.

Although the Gospel authors can’t avoid her— mentioning her 13 times in the New Testament—they offer few details of her life. This was perhaps no accident: women were considered untrustworthy in the Roman world, and the Gospels, eager to make new converts, probably did not wish to highlight the fact that a woman was a key witness to their story of the Resurrection—a story that was already difficult enough to explain. The New Testament Gospels “tell us a woman called Mary Magdalene was a follower of Jesus and played a role around the time of his betrayal and resurrection,” says Elaine Pagels, a professor of early Christian history at Princeton. “But beyond that they tell us very little about what her role really was.” Scholars have picked apart the few hints the New Testament provides.

Many have interpreted Luke’s observation that Mary and other women around Jesus “ministered unto him of their substance” as evidence that they provided the financial support for Jesus’ ministry. But where would this money have come from? A marriage contract? A divorce settlement? An inheritance? A job? The Gospels provide no direction, but a sign that women played an essential role in Jesus’ life. Another detail: Mary’s name. Most New Testament women are identified by their relation to men (Mary the wife of Clopas, for example, is different from Mary the mother of James.) Yet the Magdalene is distinguished by her hometown, the port city of Magdala.

No husband ever appears—an explanation, perhaps, for how she was able to travel freely with Jesus. Was she never married at all? “A freewoman who never married probably would have been exceedingly rare,” says Ross Kraemer, a Brown University professor of religious studies. All the New Testament really tells us about Mary is that she entered Jesus’ ministry as he preached throughout Galilee, that she had been possessed by seven demons but was no longer, and, of course, that she announced the Resurrection. We never learn her occupation, the color of her hair, if she was old or young, homely or beautiful. Yet from the earliest hours of Christianity, there were other voices, too, those determined to present a fuller picture of the Magdalene. In several Gnostic Gospels, texts whose dissemination in the past 50 years has turned the study of Christian origins on its head, she is not the wallflower of the New Testament but rather a favored, perhaps favorite, follower of Christ. In the Gospel of Thomas, she and another woman, Salome, are one of six (not 12) true disciples of Jesus. In the Gnostic Dialogue of the Savior, she is referred to “as the woman who understood all things.”

Most compelling is the Gospel of Mary, not just for its portrait of the Magdalene as a strong, willful woman but also for its radical ideas about gender. While Mary is called the disciple “the Savior loved … more than all other women,” she and Jesus see gender as irrelevant, something that will disappear in the path to the next life. “The text is arguing that the distinction between male and female is one of the body, which will dissolve,” says Harvard historian Karen King. “The basis for leadership lies in spiritual development.” The noncanonical Gospels provide a troubling answer. In Gnostic texts, Mary is under constant attack, most often from Peter. “Tell Mary to leave us,” he implores Jesus in the Gospel of Thomas, “for women are not worthy of life.” Mary understands his threat. “I am afraid of Peter,” she tells Jesus in the Gnostic Dialogue Pistis Sophia. “He threatens me and hates our race.” The pope made his new Mary a reformed whore because he knew that the faithful needed a story of penance that was at once alluring and inspiring. The early Middle Ages were a time of tremendous social tumult—war and disease roiled nations and sent destitute women into the streets.

Gregory’s church needed a character from Jesus’ circle who provided an answer to this misery, who proved that the path of Christ was an escape from the pressures of the sinful world. The mysterious Magdalene of the Resurrection story was peripheral enough to be reinvented. Finally, the church fathers were able to put the inconvenient woman to good use. Christendom eagerly embraced its new saintly sinner.

The Magdalene Cult

A Magdalene cult spread throughout Europe, from England where Mary was made the patron saint of lepers, to Florence where prostitutes and young men ran a race on her feast day. In Germany, the Penitent Sisters of the Blessed Magdalene took the lead in reforming wayward women; in Spain young men on stilts danced with Mary’s icon in the streets. The French were particularly enamored with the Magdalene—so enamored that, naturally, they made her French. In the 13th century, a Dominican monk published the Golden Legend, which claimed that after Jesus’ death Mary had fled Jerusalem and ended up in southern Gaul. Her spirit, the story said, protected Frenchmen. There was no historical evidence to support this claim, only the imaginations of Provencal storytellers. Still, the legend persists. Dan Brown’s claim that the Magdalene spent her final years in Provence has its roots in the tales of medieval France”

Dr Jerome Dominguez edited by Dr Simon Harding

www.biblon.com

www.chronosocnsulting.com

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It is extremely difficult to generalize about the American colonies. The seventeenth century seems to have been an era of experimentation and a wide variety of motives had inspired the promoters of colonial schemes. Neither in England nor America did anyone worry about the unity of purpose or objectives.

By:
Dr Simon Hardingl

Education>
Historyl
Oct 12, 2010

Introduction to Canadian Oil Sands

Oil sands are reservoirs of partially biodegraded oil still in the process of escaping and being biodegraded, but they contain so much migrating oil that, although most of it has escaped, vast amounts are still present……

By:
Dr Simon Hardingl

Education>
Sciencel
Oct 09, 2010

Historical Characters in the Church

Continuing notes on those named in our Church Calendar for the month of October whose lives are worthy of remembrance. William Tyndale, Translator of the Scriptures Born in Gloucestershire about 1494…….

By:
Dr Simon Hardingl

Education>
Historyl
Oct 09, 2010

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Sep 252010
 

Mary Stewart’s Merlin Trilogy

  • ISBN13: 9780688003470
  • Condition: New
  • Notes: BUY WITH CONFIDENCE, Over one million books sold! 98% Positive feedback. Compare our books, prices and service to the competition. 100% Satisfaction Guaranteed

The Crystal Cave
The Hollow Hills
The Last Enchantment
The prophetic voice of Merlin, the mysterious enchanter of Arthurian legend, has completeted his story. Written over a period of ten years, Mary Stewart’s three best-selling novels now stand together in one volume — the finest work of her distinguished career.Hers is the most extended portrait in all literature of this compelling figure of Dark Age myth and history. Merlin, the protector and tutor of Arthur, has usually been pro

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